Gender and Sexuality Issues in the Philippines: Part 2


Sex/Gender which appears to be based on physiology is actually a social construct. It is commonly refers to a combination of characteristics, expectations and patterns of behavior that are associated with so-called biological sex, to which individuals are expected to conform, and is linked with concepts of masculinity and femininity.

Sex/Gender Expression is how a person communicates one's assigned gender identity as characterized, among others, by manners of clothing, inclinations, and behavior in relation to masculine or feminine conventions.

Sex Gender Identity is the psychological sense of being male or female. A person may have a male or female identity with the physiological characteristics of the opposite sexual/gender identity.

Sex Gender Orientation refers to the direction of emotional sexual attraction or conduct that can be toward people of:
  • the same sex (homosexual orientation) or
  • both sexes (bisexual orientation) or
  • the opposite sex (heterosexual orientation)

Sex Gender Behavior refers to what a person does to express the self sexually, which can be toward people of the same sex, both sexes, or the opposite sex.

Sexual orientation is different from sexual behavior.
Persons may or may not express their sexual orientation in their behavior.


LGBT means Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender.

LGBTQI means Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and Intersex.

Being lesbian or gay means that your primary romantic, emotional, physical ans sexual attraction and connection are with someone of the same sex.

Bisexuals have the potential to feel sexually attracted to, and fall in love with someone of either sex/gender. They are able to experience desire and intimacy with a person, regardless of sex/gender.

A transgendered person is someone whose gender identity, behavior or expression differs from the conventional expectations of masculinity and femininity or from their birth sex. Commonly includes transsexuals and transvestites.

Crossdressers (formerly called transvestites) are people who like to wear clothes associated with the opposite sex. People who crossdress may be heterosexual, homosexual, transsexual or content with the gender they were born with.

Transsexuals are people who, though they were born with the body of one sex/gender, feel they are really a person of the other. They usually go through sex/gender transition (formerly called "sex reassignment"/"sex change") in order to live in the gender that corresponds with their preferred sex/gender identity.


  • It is the sexual intercourse under any of the following circumstances: use of force, threat or intimidation; fraudulent machination or abuse of authority; taking advantage of one deprived of reason or otherwise unconscious;
  • It is the insertion by offender of his penis into another person's mouth, genital or anal orifice, or any instrument or object into another person's genital or anal orifice.

The law that protects you: Anti-Rape Law (RA 8353)

  • It is a physical, sexual, emotional, psychological, verbal, economic abuse committed against a woman or her child in the context of an intimate relationship.

The law that protects you: Anti-Violence Against Women & Children Law (RA 9262)

  • It is the unwanted or unwelcome sexual conduct, advance or attention, request for sexual favor, or other physical, verbal or non-verbal conduct which is sexual in nature.

The laws that protect you:
* Anti-Sexual Harassment Law (RA 7877)
* Civil Service Commission Resolution 01-0940

How to avoid Sexual Harassment?

  • be aware of warning signs
  • be alert to suggestive looks, comments and body language
  • help those who complain of sexual harassment

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